Laboratory Diagnosis - Infectious diseases

Clinical microbiology laboratories use a number of rapid tests in order to detect the specific microbial antigens or nucleic acids in the primary nontissue specimens. For example, Cryptococcus antigen testing can be performed on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and antigen testing for respiratory viruses can be performed on nasopharyngeal specimens. Molecular techniques that are being used increasingly in clinical laboratories detect the pathogen-specific nucleic acids and have most notably been applied to virologic diagnosis. The introduction and rapid expansion of molecular techniques, especially nucleic acid detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/DNA amplification, to the detection of infectious agents requires clinicians to be familiar with the properties of some newly introduced diagnostic tests as they enter common use. Laboratory tests may identify organisms directly or indirectly.


  • Microscopy
  • Immunologic tests
  • Identification test by nucleic acid based
  • Identification test by Non nucleic acid based

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