Day 2 :
American Hospital and Mohammed Bin Rashid Medical University, UAE
Keynote: Insight into antibiotic resistance and patterns of carbapenam-resistant Enterobacteriacea in the United Arab Emirates
Time : 09:00-10:00
Aaron Han has completed MD/PhD program from Baylor College of Medicine with a thesis in Immunogenetics. He is a practicing Pathologist with interest in tumor pathology and special expertise in breast, gynecologic and hematolymphoid tumors. He also is a board certified Clinical Informaticist.
Antibiotic resistance is a major global healthcare issue. Specifically there is a growing problem with Enterobacteriacea resistant to Carbapenam (CRE). United States Centers of Disease Control has prioritized this as a significant threat to public health. CRE organisms are seen with increasing frequency and resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. This study presents clinical challenges for patients as well as public health concern. A collaborative project to look at resistant strains and their molecular signature was undertaken in the UAE. Initial studies of more than 70 strains showed interesting resistance pattern. The clinical microbiologic phenotype was ascertained and the resistance pattern to panels of antibiotics reported. Resistance to standard beta-lactam regimens were virtually always present. Increasing frequency of resistance to penams and colistin was seen. Genetic patterns clustered the strains into different groups and various strain families could be discerned. This is the first study in the country of this important emerging microbiolic threat. There are clinical benefits as well as epidemiological implications of these studies.
Southern Jutland Hospital, Denmark
Time : 10:00 - 10:45
Jalil Hariri is a Consultant Pathologist at Southern Jutland Hospital as well as SLB Hospital in Denmark. He has published several papers and oral presentations addressing primarily non-gynecological liquid-based cytology, immunocytochemistry and HPV.
Cervical cancer is the only malignancy with a well-defined, detectable and treatable precursor which can make the disease preventable. The Pap-test screening was the start-shot for the secondary prophylaxis of cervical cancer and has regardless the subjectivity in morphological evaluation and the inevitable false negative rate, contributed to the decline in the incidence and the mortality of lesion during the last five decades. Lack of well-organized screenings programs and low socio-economic conditions diminished, meanwhile, the efficiency of the screening in developing countries, which necessitated tailored screening-programs for these areas. The discovery of HPV’s role in developing cervical cancer in the 1980s added the molecular biology test for HPV to the screenings program, initially as a triage test for mild cellular changes and since as primary Human Papillomavirus (HPV) screening. Primary prophylaxis was then launched by the HPV vaccination a decade ago. Specimen sampling for cytology was also improved by adding the cotton swab to Ayers spatula in the late 1970s/ early 1980s, which again was replaced by the Cytobrush a decade later. Yesterday’s irrigation smear by using the cytopipette and the micropipette during 1960s, was the forerunner for today’s liquid-based cytology. Fully or semi-automated imaging systems that are widely used today, were also preceded by several attempts for screening’s automation in 1960s. But cervical cancer, despite improvements of primary and secondary prophylactic measures, despite quality improvements of specimen sampling and specimen processing and despite improvements of the quality of microscopy is not eradicated yet. Can we do it tomorrow?
National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Iran
Keynote: Genetic diagnostic methods
Time : 10:45 - 11:30
Massoud Houshmand has completed his PhD in Medical Molecular Genetic from Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. He is the Head of the Genetic Diagnostic Laboratory, Faculty Member of National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology and Responsible Director of Personalized Medicine journal. He has organized about 22 workshops and seminars and has published more than 220 papers and 17 books. He is the Winner of Best Iranian Researcher in Medical Genetic 2010, Winner of ISESCO prizes in Science & Technology 2014 and winner of Best Iranian Researcher 2015.
The identify cation and characterization of the genetic basis of disease is often fundamental to diagnosis. Detection of cause of the disease in a blood or other tissues sample can lead to a diagnosis, possible prognosis, and prospective therapy treatments. Over the years, a variety of cytogenetic (Karyotyping) Molecular Cytogenetic (FISH-CGHarray-Cish) and molecular biology techniques (PCR-RFLP-ARMS-Dot Blot-Sequencing-MLPA-Western, Norden and southern blot-Real Time PCR, PGD) have been utilized in clinical diagnostic laboratories in the analysis of patient samples. The recent development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques has revolutionized the field of clinical molecular diagnostics. Here, we review the development of molecular diagnostic approaches and some of the most commonly used assays prior to different kind of techniques in this area and mention advantage and disadvantage of each technique. PCR-based testing methodologies still currently predominate most clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories. The choice of detection method used in the analysis of gene mutations depends on a variety of factors and can range from laboratory to laboratory. Sample volume, the spectrum of mutations in a given gene of interest, and equipment investment required can all play a role in what type of assays a molecular diagnostic laboratory chooses to perform.